The aim of the lesson, is that you will be required to demonstrate your ability to learn how to carry out the correct procedures when meeting, crossing, overtaking other vehicles, allowing adequate clearance to stationary vehicles and anticipating the actions of pedestrians, cyclists and other drivers safely. With the objective being that by the conclusion of the lesson, you should have a good understanding of what is required, and should be capable of carrying out these sequences.
You should ask your pupil questions about the use of the mirror / signal / maneuvers routine, which is an essential requirement on the approach to all hazards, and that they aware of the importance of observing following traffic conditions, which will enable them to take whatever appropriate action is nec¬essary, before considering a signal, or carrying out any maneuver.
The mirror — signal — maneuver routine must always be used, on the approach to all situations which involve meeting, crossing, overtaking, following, pass¬ing other vehicles and when dealing with all situations involving anticipation and safe clearance to pedestrians, cyclists and other drivers.
You must be capable of meeting approaching traffic safely on all types of road and in particular within narrow roads. You must be prepared to give priority to oncoming road users, when there are obstructions on the left side of the road, and you should also be prepared to give way to oncoming road users, when these other road users have already committed themselves to proceeding past obstructions, on the opposite side of the road. You will be required to make use of the mirror — signal — maneuver routine and assess the oncoming traffic situation. When encountering meet situations with vehicles parked on both sides of the road, where no vehicle has priority, you should look ahead and assess what sort of action the oncoming driver appears likely to take, then act in accordance with that assessment. When driving on single track roads, where passing places will be located on either the left, or right hand side of the road, and on occasions where you are faced by oncoming traffic, or have traffic following close behind, you should either pull up within the passing place on the left, or stop directly opposite the one on the right. This same rule applies when both sides of the road are obstructed, in situations where there is only room for one vehicle to proceed, you should either stop within a gap on the left, or directly opposite a gap in the vehicles parked on the opposite side of the road. Where several vehicles are travelling in the opposite direction, where a large vehicle is approaching, or where a large vehicle is travelling uphill, where possible you should always be prepared to give way. When you are giving way to oncoming traffic, you should always ensure that entrances, or junctions, are not obstructed, and should avoid stopping in an awkward position, which does not allow the oncoming traffic to proceed. Where neces-sary a good hold back position should be adopted, this is approximately one and a half to two car behind the obstruction, with approximately half the width of the car out positioned to the right of the obstruction. Whenever the road becomes clear, you should move off safely, leaving adequate clearance to the obstruction on the left.
When turning right from a major to minor road, you should be aware that you must give priority to oncoming road users, who are either intending to proceed straight ahead, or turn left into the side road. You should be capable of assess-ing the speed and distance of oncoming traffic, before making a decision to proceed, or stop, when intending to turn right across their path. When crossing the path of oncoming road users, you must always ensure that it is possible to do so, without causing inconvenience to these other road users, such as by causing them to either swerve, slow down, or stop. When crossing the path of oncoming road users, you should be aware that normal safety margins must be increased, it situations where it has been necessary to bring the car to a complete stop, and move off again, in comparison with completing the right turn on the move. You must take into account any variation in the speed limit on the road you are turning frojn, including whether this road is uphill, or down¬hill, make a comparison between different types of road user, such a cyclist Compared to a motorcyclist, where the vehicle has appeared or emerged from, and whether or not, the oncoming road user is driving normally, or has been stopped and has just moved off again.
Before you attempt to pass slower moving vehicles, you should always ensure that it is safe to do so and that there are no hidden hazards ahead, which may cause danger and prevent completion of the manoeuvre. You must assess the speed and location of the vehicle ahead, then decide whether or not, it is safe and necessary to overtake. You must check that the road ahead is clear of on-coming traffic for a good distance, that there is a safe gap ahead, to pull back into, and that there is sufficient space and time for you to complete the ma-noeuvre safely. You should be aware of the dangers of losing vision ahead, by driving up too close to the rear of the vehicle which you intend to overtake, be-fore pulling out, as well as the dangers of attempting to follow through closely behind other drivers who are already overtaking. You should be aware that the usual MSMPSL routine should be altered, by checking the mirrors first, then changing position and if necessary, adjusting the road speed of the car before commencing the manoeuvre. You must always make sure that the appropri¬ate gear is selected prior to commencement of the manoeuvre, by selecting a gear which will allow maximum acceleration to enable the manoeuvre to be completed within the shortest time possible. You should always give signals when overtaking a moving vehicle, particularly on single carriageways, for the benefit of both oncoming and following traffic, as well as the driver of the vehicle that you are overtaking. You should make sure that adequate clearance is given to the vehicle which is being overtaken. You should be aware of the dangers of cutting back into the left too soon after overtaking, by ensuring that the vehicle that you have just overtaken can be seen in the interior mirror, before starting to move back in.
Wherever you are driving behind other road users, you should always try to keep a safety bubble around the vehicle, by leaving sufficient space to the front, rear and both sides. When you are travelling behind another vehicle, the mir¬rors must be used to assess following traffic, before adjusting the speed of the vehicle to retain a safe separation distance between the two vehicles. You must always avoid driving too close to the rear of any moving vehicle ahead, for example, when you are driving at speeds of 40 mph or over on dry roads, the two second rule should be used to maintain a safe following distance, bearing in mind that this safety margin should be doubled on wet roads. When driving normally, it is safer for you to leave a minimum safety gap of no less than the overall stopping distance, although when you are driving in heavier traffic, you must leave a minimum gap of at least the thinking distance for the road speed at the time. When stopping behind other vehicles in traffic queues, you should also be aware of the dangers of stopping too close to the vehicle ahead, by leaving a • minimum of at least half a car length between the two vehicles.
Before you make any attempt to pass any stationary vehicles, or other obstruc-tions, you should always ensure that it is safe to do no and that there are no hidden hazards ahead, which may cause danger, or prevent completion of the manoeuvre. You must avoid losing vision ahead, by driving up too close to the rear of the stationary vehicle which you are about to pass, before pulling out. You should be aware of the dangers of attempting to follow through closely behind other drivers who are already passing a line of stationary vehicles. You must always use the mirror — signal — manoeuvre routine, on the approach to all situations which involve passing other vehicles and when dealing with the safe clearance to pedestrians, cyclists and other drivers. You should always consider giving a signal, especially in situations where it may be of benefit to any other road users. You must always make sure that adequate clearance is given to the stationary vehicles which are being overtaken, such as when passing parked cars, an allowance of at least a doors width clearance should be given, while you should also be watching out for the dangers of car doors opening, vehicles moving off without warning, and pedestrians, especially young children stepping out between vehicles, in addition to this you must always allow adequate clearance to other stationary objects on both the left and right, including skips, traffic cones and road works. When you are driving past stationary vehicles, where it is not possible to leave a meter clearance, you should always make sure that the road speed of the car is reduced, in accordance with the narrowness of the gap available. When driving through between rows of vehicles of both sides of reasonably narrow roads, where the remaining gap is less than two meters, the car should be positioned centrally in the middle of the gap.
When you are turning from one road to another at junctions, or crossroads, you must always be prepared to give way to pedestrians crossing the road. Whenever pedestrians are observed on the road ahead, you should use the mirror — signal — manoeuvre routine, before adjusting either the road position, or the speed of the vehicle. When you are approaching pedestrian crossings, you should always approach at a speed, where it is possible to stop if neces¬sary. Where pedestrians are standing close to the edge of the kerb, you must always ensure that sufficient clearance is given to them, while driving past. When approaching locations, where there are likely to be pedestrians around, such when driving through shopping areas, or where you are near to schools, you should be prepared to drive at a reduced speed.
When cyclists are observed on the road ahead, you should make use of the mirror — signal — manoeuvre routine, before you make any attempt to over-take, giving at least six feet clearance, while driving past. You must he aware and watch out for cyclists moving up on the left while you a•-either waiting, or travelling slowly in traffic queues.
When you are following other vehicles, you should look ahead and be capable of reacting to signals given by the drivers of these vehicles, such as the opera-tion of brake lights, reversing lights, direction indicators, or hazard flashers. When you encounter slow moving vehicles which have flashing amber lights operating on the roof, you must be prepared to consider overtaking. When you encounter emergency vehicles with flashing blue lights, you must always be prepared to move into a position which will allow these vehicles to proceed. You should be watching out for either large, or articulated lorries at junctions, who may require additional space in which to complete either their left, or right tam. You should also be aware of the give way rules, which apply to buses which are signaling their intention to move off.