The aim of the lesson is that you will be required to demonstrate your abil¬ity to learn how to carry out the correct procedures, when dealing with an emergency situation, while also making proper use of all mirrors throughout the lesson. With the objective being that by the conclusion of the lesson, you should have a good understanding of what is required, and should be capable of carrying out a simulated emergency stop in response to a given signal.
At the beginning of this lesson, you should make full use of the question and answer technique, by asking them relevant questions in respect of their existing knowledge regarding the adjustment, vision obtained and general use of all three rear view mirrors. From the commencement of the drive, you should identify, analyze and provide a remedy for all the mirror faults, which they have displayed, before providing feedback and praise at the conclusion of this short drive.
You should ask your pupil questions about the adjustment of both the interior and exterior mirrors, with particular emphasis on the view which they should obtain in them. You should also make further use of the question and answer technique, to establish their knowledge in respect of the different types of glass used and the differences which this makes to the view obtained. You should check on their knowledge of the benefits and disadvantages which convex glass has, when fitted to both exterior mirrors.
You should ask your pupil questions about the use of the mirrors when they are changing direction, in relation to which mirrors they should use and in which order, when they arc either deviating to the left or right. You should check that they are aware of the other occasions on which they are required to make use of the mirrors, such as when overtaking stationary or moving vehicles or when changing speed, by means of acceleration or by braking to either slow down or bring the vehicle to a stop.
You should ask your pupil questions about the u. of the mirror, signal, and maneuver routine, in respect of the approach to hazards, or before carrying out any maneuver. You should check that they are aware of the reasons why they must take observation, before giving any signals for any reason, as well as making sure that they know when to delay the use of a signal in circumstances when it is not safe for them to do so. You should also ensure that they are fully aware of the fact that they must be able to assess the speed and distance of following road users, to enable them to act sensibly on whatever view they have obtained with the mirrors.
You should explain to your pupil that when they are required to carry out this exercise, that this will the one exception to the general rule of always using the mirrors before doing anything. You should point out that in this instance, time is of essence and that the additional time taken, while they look in the mirrors, would have caused them to travel much nearer to the actual danger, which initially causal them to carry out an emergency stop. By consulting the mirrors frequently in general driving, they should already, fully aware of the speed and distance of all following road users. During the course of the driving test, they have a one in three chance of being asked to carry out this exercise. When this is required by their examiner, it will take the form of a simulated exercise, where they will be required to carry out this exercise in response to a given signal.
You should move away in the normal manner and attempt to reach your nor¬mal driving speed, in accordance with the road and traffic conditions which exist at that time. You must not attempt to pre-empt the signal and must wait for the signal to stop to be given. The signal to stop will be given both verbally and visually, the verbal signal will be given with the word “STOP”, while the visual signal will be given simultaneously, by the raising of the right arm with the palm of the hand facing the windscreen. When carrying out the emergency stop exercise, you should maintaining a straight course, while retaining both hands on the steering wheel, keeping them in this position until the car has become stationary. Once the car has become stationary, you should keep both feet perfectly still on both the clutch and footbrake pedals, before applying the parking brake and returning the gear lever to the neutral position. Having been given instructions to proceed, you should prepare the car for moving off in the normal manner, before taking all round observation, by looking in all three mirrors and by looking back over your left and right shoulders to check both blind spots, before attempting to move away. If necessary, you should wait until it is safe to proceed, before moving off.
The Highway Code thinking distances are based on average reaction times, of around two thirds of a second and roughly equate to one foot travelled, for every mile an hour of speed. Reaction time, is the time taken for the brain to receive information from the senses, such as the eyes, cars and sense of move-ment and that this reaction time, may vary considerably, in accordance with the following factors: such as your age, experience, alertness, and physical fitness. Reaction times can also be affected by the following factors: where you have consumed alcohol or drugs, you are mentally stressed, or physically tired, are in a poor state of health, after you have consumed a heavy meal, or the time of day. For driving test purposes, an automatic response, whenever you are given the signal to stop, must be carried out by making an immediate contact with the footbrake pedal within a fraction of a second. Before attempting this exercise on the move, you should practice testing your reactions to the signal to stop while stationary, until such times as you are satisfied that you can react quickly enough, while transferring your right foot from the accelera¬tor to the footbrake pedal.
When you are carrying out an emergency stop, the footbrake pedal should be applied much more firmly than normal, in such a mariner, that it will enable the car to be brought to a complete stop in the shortest possible space. Before applying pressure to the footbrake, factors such as the speed of the car, the state of the road surface, and the weather conditions which exist at that time, must always be taken into account. Firmer pressure would be required on a dry road surface, as compared to a wet road surface, where braking distances could be least doubled. The maximum braking force occurs just before the wheels lock, as a result pressure to the footbrake pedal should be applied progressively and firmly, without braking so harshly that the wheels lock. Pressure must always be applied to the footbrake pedal, well before attempting to apply pressure to the clutch pedal. You should try not to make any contact with the clutch pedal, until the car has almost become stationary. Pressing the clutch pedal down too soon, would cause the car to lose the stability normally given by the braking and steering systems of the car, which would in turn increase the risk of skid¬ding, and would also increase your total braking distance.
When driving cars, which have not been fitted with an "ABS" braking sys¬tem, should a skid occur, the "cadence braking" technique should be used to retain, or regain control of the car. It should only necessary for you to apply pressure to the footbrake pedal in this manner, when you are driving on very slippery road conditions, where there is a very high risk of skidding. In such conditions, where it is necessary to operate this system, a continuous rhyth¬mic pumping action, should applied to the footbrake pedal, for as long as is necessary to bring the car to a complete stop. This technique should not be required when carrying out an emergency stop during the driving test, as when severe conditions, such as black ice, or snow covered road surfaces exist, the driving test would be cancelled.
The "ABS" braking system which is used on a large number of cars is an anti-lock system which has been developed by “Bosch” and the letters which are a registered trademark are an abbreviation for anti-blockier system. Cars which are fitted with this anti-lock braking system have sensors that detect when the wheels are about to lock. It releases the brakes momentarily to allow the wheels to revolve and grip, then automatically reapplies them, this cycle is repeated several times a second to maximize braking performance. Where an anti-lock braking system (ABS) is fitted it automatically activates whenever maximum braking pressure is applied, or when it senses that the wheels are about to lock, this system normally prevents the wheels from locking, so that you can continue to steer the vehicle during braking. You still need to depress the clutch pedal to prevent the car stalling, because the power steering system uses an engine driven pump and will only operate when the engine is running. Preventing the wheels from locking means that the vehicles steering and stability can be maintained, leading to safer stopping. However, you must ensure that the engine does not stall, as this could disable the power steering when stopping in an emergency and braking harshly.
When driving in poor weather conditions this system would be less ef¬fective, such as when the road surface is very wet, where water can build up between the tires and the road surface, which will result in your vehicle actually riding along on a thin film of water causing your tires to lose their grip on the road surface, in such a situation the ABS system may not always prevent skidding. Equally, anti-lock brakes may not work as effectively if the road surface is uneven, or has loose gravel or chipping, as poor contact with the road surface could cause one or more tires to lose grip on the road. When a skid occurs when driving a car fitted with an "ABS" braking system, the ca¬dence braking method, should never, used, you should quite simply retain a good firm pressure on the brake pedal, until such times as the car has become stationary.
The main causes of skidding are in order: the driver, vehicle and the road surface. It is important that you learn about the causes and prevention of skids, rather than just have the ability to correct them. To prevent skids from occurring, you have a responsibility to drive at speeds and in a manner which is appropriate to the road and weather conditions which exist at that time. You must how to recognize the different types of road surface on which a skid is most likely to occur, which should enable you to take the appropriate preventative measures to compensate for these surfaces. Although the road and weather conditions do not in themselves cause a skid to occur, they may contribute towards the aggravation of a skid once one has occurred. Extra care should be taken in respect of acceleration, application of the brakes, use of the steering, and in particular road speed, when you are driving in adverse road conditions, such as on, roads where the surface is wet, has heavy surface water, is cover by either snow or ice, has patches of black ice, loose gravel, mud, autumn leaves, grease, or oil, or the road surface is either cobbled, or very smooth. When driving on roads where there is a greater risk of skidding, you should adopt the ABC rule of prevention, by accelerating gently, braking gently and by cornering gently, all of which will assist in the prevention of skidding. The risk of skidding can be greatly reduced, if not eliminated, by en¬suring that you, use gentle acceleration when required, release the clutch more carefully, after the selection of a lower gear, make an earlier and more gradual reduction in speed, negotiate hazards such as sharp bends, at a much slower speed, avoid making sudden changes of direction with the steering, and avoid applying the brakes and attempting to steer at the same time. With reference to the emergency stop exercise on the driving test, the two most likely causes of skidding are as follows: attempting to brake and steer at the same time, which would be likely to induce a rear wheel skid, or applying extremely harsh pressure to the footbrake pedal, which could cause all four wheels to lock.
To correct a rear wheel ski, you should immediately relax the pressure being applied to the footbrake pedal, while at the same time, turning the steering wheel in the same direction m the rear of the car, before reapplying pressure to the footbrake pedal to bring the car to a stop. You should be aware of the dangers of over correction of the steering, which would be quite likely to cause a skid in the opposite direction. To correct a front wheel skid, you should im-mediately relax the pressure being applied to the footbrake pedal, meanwhile keeping the steering wheel straight, before reapplying pressure again to regain a grip on the road surface, before attempting to correct the skid, by turning t. steering wheel in the opposite direction to the direction of travel. To correct a four wheel skid, where all the wheels have locked, you should immediately re¬lax the pressure being applied to the footbrake pedal, before reapplying pres¬sure again in a more gentle fashion. It should not normally necessary for you to apply cadence braking during driving conditions, as this method of braking, is only likely to be required in severe weather conditions, where you are driving on snow or ice, where the skid risk is much higher.