The aim of the lesson, is that you will be required to demonstrate your ability to learn how to carry out the correct procedures at crossroads, when proceed¬ing ahead, turning right and turning left. With the objective being that by the conclusion of the lesson, you should have a good understanding of what is required, and should be capable of carrying out these crossroads sequences, with as little help as possible from myself.
They should be aware that all three mirrors should be used on the approach to crossroads when proceeding ahead, and that the mirror — signal — manoeuvre routine, should be used, when they arc turning to the right, or left, with the appropriate right, or left signal being given in plenty of time.
When approaching crossroads whether they are proceeding ahead, turning right or left, they should reduce speed by initially removing pressure from the accelerator pedal, before where necessary, starting to apply progressive pressure to the footbrake pedal. When driving ahead on the major road, or when proceeding ahead at green traffic lights, they should approach at a speed where it is possible for them to stop, if necessary. When they are emerging at crossroads, they should be aware of the dangers of approaching at a speed, which is either too fast, or too slow, and that a reduction in their speed should be made if necessary, by braking and or by changing to an appropriate lower gear. At unmarked crossroads they must be prepared to bring the car to a stop if necessary, when approaching from any direction, irrespective of the intended direction of travel.
They should be aware that the selection of the appropriate gear for proceeding ahead, turning right, or left at crossroads may be either second or first gear, and that this will depend on whether this is a turn from a major to a minor, or a minor to a major road. They should be aware that the selection of the ap¬propriate gear for proceeding ahead, turning right, or left at crossroads when emerging, may be either second, or first gear, depending on whether this is an open, or closed crossroads.
When selecting the appropriate gear on the approach to crossroads, which may be second or first gear, dependent of whether they are on the major or minor road, they must ensure that they have allowed sufficient time to release the clutch pedal fully, to avoid coasting. They must he aware that coasting at crossroads is a potentially dangerous practice and must always be avoided. This fault may occur, on occasions where they have kept the clutch pedal down to the floor, after having selected a lower gear, or where they have se¬lected the "neutral" position, while the car is still moving.
When they are approaching crossroads on a major or minor road, they should always look ahead first, before taking any observations to either the right, or left. When they are driving ahead, turning right, or left through traffic lights, they should take observations into all three roads. When going ahead, turning right, or left, onto a major road from a minor one, they should take observation in all three directions, before proceeding. When they are turning to their right, or left from major roads, they will require to carry out additional observations, by having a look into the road on their left, before turning to their right and an additional look into the road on their right, before turning to their left. When proceeding ahead, turning right, or left at unmarked crossroads, observation should also be taken in all three directions before they attempt to proceed.
When they are approaching crossroads controlled by give way signs and road markings, or by just give way lines, they should look, assess, and then reach a decision as to whether, or not it is possible to continue without stopping, then take the appropriate action in accordance with that decision. They must be able to make an accurate assessment of judging the speed and distance of other road users before emerging. They must not cause inconvenience to other vehicles, when they are turning into the path of these approaching vehicles, such as when turning left with a vehicle approaching from their right and turning right with a vehicle approaching from their left. They should be able to emerge safely into a gap, without causing other road users to either slow down, swerve, or stop. They must be aware of the priorities which exist when emerging and intending to turn right at crossroads, where they should give priority to oncoming drivers, who either intend to proceed ahead, or to the left, in comparison with their intentions to proceed ahead or turn to their left, where oncoming drivers should give them priority. When they are faced with a situation where both they and the oncoming driver, intend to turn to the right, they must make eye contact with the other driver and reach a ,mutual decision as to which driver is going to proceed first, as neither have priority. When they are required to deal with an unmarked crossroads where there are no signs or road markings, they should approach as if they are always on the minor road and be prepared to give way, irrespective of the direction from which other road users arc approaching.
When they are turning left at crossroads from major to minor roads, they must be aware of the dangers of approaching left turns from a position, which is either too far away from, or too close to the left hand kerb, they should main¬tain the normal safety line position, approximately a metre from the left hand kerb, other than on occasions where they are already driving past stationary vehicles, or other obstructions on the left, in which case they should gradu¬ally move into a position which is reasonably close to the left side of the road. When emerging at crossroads, and turning left, they should follow the natural curve of the road round to the left, where one exists. In locations where filter lanes may exist, they should obey any left turn lane arrows marked out on the road surface, at traffic lights and other crossroads.
When approaching crossroads, and intending to turn either right or left from major to minor roads, or emerge from minor to major roads, they must give priority to any pedestrians who may be crossing over the roads which they are turning into.
Wherever possible, at crossroads, when entering a side road on the right, they should try to avoid cutting the corner, with the exception of a situation, where the left hand side of the side road has an obstruction, in which case, they must take additional care, to ensure that no other road users are intending to emerge, before they attempt to drive to the right hand side of the centre lines within the side road.
When approaching crossroads on the major road, where they intend to turn right, they should gradually move across towards a position, which is just to the left of the centre lines, or into a centre lane, where there are hatched road markings protecting this area, or move across into a central position within the right hand lane, when they are turning from either a four lane road, or two lane dual carriageway, or alternatively move into the extreme right hand lane, when turning right within a one-way system. When emerging at crossroads, they should attempt to achieve the correct position on the road prior to turn¬ing right, which should be varied in accordance with the type of road layout, which has been marked out in that particular location, for most right turns, they should gradually move across towards a position, which is just to the left of the centre lines, other than when they are driving in narrow roads, where they should maintain their normal safety line position, also where there are lane arrows marked out on the road surface, it is essential that they choose the lane which is marked with right turn arrows, or alternatively when turn¬ing right at the end of a one-way street they should move into the extreme right hand lane. When turning right and they are faced with an approaching vehicle also turning right, they must consider the layout of the crossroads and the location of other vehicles, before deciding who should proceed first. They must consider which vehicle, is likely to get the opportunity to proceed first. When approaching on the major road at staggered crossroads, where the road on the left is nearer than the one on the right, they should always adopt an offside to offside approach, whereas where the road on the right is nearer than the one on the left, they should always adopt a nearside to nearside approach. When emerging from a minor road at a staggered crossroads, where the road opposite is positioned towards the left, they should always adopt a nearside to nearside approach, whereas where the road opposite is positioned towards the right, they should always adopt an offside to offside approach. They must also be aware of the rules which govern the entry to a box junction, when turning right in accordance with the regulations.
When approaching right turns at crossroads, they must give priority to on coming road users, who are either intending to proceed straight ahead, or turn left into the side road. They must be able to assess the speed and distance of oncoming traffic, before reaching a decision as to whether to proceed or stop, when intending to turn right across the path of other road users. When they are crossing the path of oncoming road users, they must always ensure that it is possible for them to do so, without causing inconvenience to others, by causing them to swerve, slow down, or stop. This is a skill which they may already possess as pedestrian, where they are in the habit of walking safely across the road, equally they should be able to drive across the road. On occasions where it has been necessary for them to bring the car to a complete stop, when moving off and turning right, their safety margins must be increased, in comparison with completing the right turn on the move. These normal safety margins will normally have to be increased, where the approaching road users are travelling downhill, or where a higher speed limit is in force on the major road.